Sunday, August 23, 2020
Mtn Nigeria: Telecommunication MTN Nigeria is a surely understand media transmission industry outfitted towards managing all part of media transmission infrastructural advancement as it concerns GSM rollout. MTN Nigeria has its focal head quarter in South African. MTN was joined in Nigeria February 2001 as the principal none indigenous Telecommunication Company in the territories of GSM advancements. They have enthusiasm for greatness. Worldwide System for Mobile correspondence (GSM) is a computerized versatile communication framework that is broadly utilized everywhere throughout the world. GSM is generally utilized instead of all different remote communication advances among which are TDMA (Time division numerous entrance), CDMA (Code division various access). This uses a variety of time division numerous entrance (TDMA). MTN Nigeria GSM framework works at either the 900 MHz or 1800 MHz recurrence band. In todays exceptionally serious business condition among broadcast communications organizations in Nigeria, MTN as association realize that Change Management is basic to their upper hand and long haul achievement and endurance. This reality have made MTN to contribute immense assets on figuring and actualizing hierarchical change for their prosperity endurance and simultaneously putting colossal assets in preparing of their workers (both administration and lower-level staffs) on the information on Change the executives. As Tofler A. expressed in the ilearn module (2010), module03, unit1, page2, There is just a single steady today and that is change is unavoidable for a fruitful business accomplishment. In view of this prominent statement, MTN Nigeria embraced a change program, MTN Nigeria Project office was extended to become Capital Programs Group (CPG) inside the most recent five years. Assortment of materials on the development of Project Office to Capital Programs bunch was done through close to home contact with top administration levels, Program Managers, Managers, Engineers, course material applicable materials from the web. MTN STRUCTURE PRIOR TO ENLARGEMENT OF PROJECT OFFICE TO CAPITAL PROGRAMS GROUP (CHANGE Program) As prior referenced MTN Nigeria has enthusiasm for greatness in territories like, Acquiring and holding clients, Developing Implementing Market Strategies, Stimulating expanded use of items and administrations, Generating income, Retaining Customers, Stimulating utilization Research. . Before the amplification of their task office, MTN Nigeria has just a single specialized unit that administer all their system rollout activity support exercises. This includes numerous divisions as appeared underneath. System Implementation Division System Programs Unit System Project Management System Operation Division System Intelligent Building Support Services NMC Operation System Access Division System Quality Confirmation RF Planning Unit Remote Bearer Services RF/BT S Operations TX Planning Unit System Group Figure I: Structure of MTN Network bunch before the change program usage. The different divisions execute any given errand as specified by the association. Enormous quantities of destinations manufactured was redundant in light of the fact that the requirement for development was at this point to emerge. Rebuilding OF PROJECT OFFICE TO CAPITAL PROGRAMS GROUP (CHANGE Program) MTN Nigeria having built up their vision and statement of purpose, Vision: To be the main supplier of media transmission benefits in Nigeria with a strategic give top of the line organize quality, client support and worth. Statement of purpose is To be an impetus for Nigeria financial development and improvement ,releasing Nigeria solid advancement possibilities not just through the arrangement of world class correspondence yet additionally through creative and feasible corporate social duty activities To have the option to leave up this desire get together with the new difficulties related with GSM organizations inside Nigeria past. After the finish of the monetary years 2003, the CEO top administration officials of MTN Nigeria thought of new structure that is esteemed to ease and quicken organize extension quality all through the league. New divisions were risen, work obligations changed, new areas were made, new administrators were named by organization arrangements. The new structure that was made is Capital Programs Group, CPG works in association with different specialized providers and applies broad venture the board abilities to rollout all components of MTN GSM system to the best expectations. The Department is contained the accompanying Units: Coordinations Center and Fiber Implementation Site Build Rollout BTS/Transmission/3G Upgrade System Rollout Program Support The making of the new divisions gave the organization better perceivability in overseeing and turning out of a superior system framework in the regions of 2G 3G systems at an extremely rapid to get together with the current interest for clients desire, and furthermore created genuine income increment in supporters base to generally 30,000 million. Interior EXTERNAL DRIVERS FOR CHANGE: Presentation MTN Nigeria came into the nation not foreseeing that the populace as far as their supporters base will truly increment following 3-4 years of activity. The rate at which call drop happens got flighty. MTN Nigeria required more locales to fill the dead spots that achieve the high pace of call drop. The difficulties on GSM innovation development is truly expanding in Nigeria. There is requirement for new innovation headway and new plans of action. This is a basic way wherein top level administration, program directors their subordinates needs to center in accomplishing a superior profitability. MTN direct a study through representatives and expert after the 2003 monetary year finishing with the beginning for the CEO and top administration. Regarding ilearn module (2010), module03, unit1, exercise 1, page2 inside outside drives for change in MTN, the accompanying elements are the essential drivers of MTN authoritative change. Quick innovation propels. Frail business execution Poor consumer loyalty High pace of task disappointment Absence of development Mergers acquisitions Collective association models Redistributing More prominent spryness in clients responsiveness New plans of action Quick TECHNOLOGY ADVANCEMENT This is a huge driver for authoritative change. Fast advancement in innovation roused for innovation development in MTN Nigeria. The expansion in new innovation progression in GSM industry in Nigeria offered ascend to the requirement for gear overhaul so as to incorporate the old supplies that might be old soon with the new types of gear. This was considered by the change operators so as to get together with the new innovation required to make them not to confront a decreasing piece of the pie to contenders lose capital contributed, in particular realize a decrease in their CAPEX capital use to a sensible worth. POOR CUSTOMER SATISFACTION Because of the high volume of traffic been conveyed my MTN, clients began encountering low quality of administration which offered ascend to extraordinary number of call drops, limit clog, soft tone quality, insufficient inclusion zone. Clients couldn't appreciate the genuine advantage of GSM utilizing MTN Nigeria network.MTN saw the need and acted in that line to abstain from losing their client base to different contenders. Powerless BUSINESS PERFORMANCE There is an apparent danger from clients in regards to the exhibition of the MTN arrange. When MTN began in Nigeria numerous individuals were in anxious to buy MTN sim card and different items that meets clients desire. There was high pace of item securing from clients inside and close to the neighboring nations. The interest for sim cards became significantly increased it became evident that the current system limit cannot deal with the interest for lines. The rate at which organize rollouts were done couldn't get together with the new testing factors. This added to an extraordinary lose in their income age. HIGH RATE OF PROJECT FALIURE The rate at which venture disappointment happens inside the task office gave a worry to the whole administration, this added to low number of locales turned out per quarter yearly. There was no nearby management of site construct temporary workers (SBCs) in other to accomplish the ideal quality on region of the foundations. The presentation of turnkey arrangement not appropriately oversaw likewise added to the disappointment, site construct temporary workers having lacking assets to fund their different undertakings. Absence OF INNOVATION Undertaking office was comprised of Engineers Project directors who are pioneers of MTN from South Africa. This gathering of individuals are exile who works without procedures and methods, there was no set down methodology. Practically all undertakings where taken care of and small scale oversaw by them, this brought forth having the greater part of the site construct contractual worker been none indigenous organizations. Undertakings turned out to be moderate on account of lacking labor to work and handle different allocated works. NEW BUSSINESS MODEL There is requirement for MTN Nigeria to grasp new plans of action. The lacking Transmission limit turned into a thwarting element as far as receiving new plans of action that will be benefitting to the organization. Before the rebuilding of the task office to capital projects bunches new plans of action like giving E1 answers for clients couldnt be accomplished. Yet, after the rebuilding MTN Nigeria began giving E1 answers for different banks ventures in the nation which likewise expanded their income. MERGER ACQUSATIONS When MTN Nigeria blended and combined activities with VGC correspondences constrained at some point in October 2006, critical reengineering occurred. To adjust the administration destinations rebuilding was the fundamental drive in this factor. The combination of MTN and VGC made a significant test in smoothing out and reconciliation of existing satellite activities structure. After the merger procurement, som
Friday, August 21, 2020
In 1996 the city of Cleveland started a $750 million Plant Enhancement Program. The programÃ¢â¬â¢s objective was to redesign and modernize the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s four water treatment offices, which are among the 10 biggest in the US, and were worked in 1856; more than 500 million gallons of water are siphoned to Cleveland inhabitants day by day. In the accompanying paper I endeavor to give an outline of the Baldwin Water Work Plant Enhancement Program (PEP) (one of the four water treatment offices) scope, time plan, expenses, and destinations; portray the programÃ¢â¬â¢s life cycle stages required to execute all tasks included; indentify and break down the conceivable related dangers, and present the separate hazard reactions; characterize the controlling and checking procedure of the program; indentify and dissect the system things of the programÃ¢â¬â¢s plan that were basic to arrive at key accomplishments. Destinations, Scope of Work, Budget The initial move towards the meaning of the Plant Enhancement ProgramÃ¢â¬â¢s (PEP) destinations is indentifying the need that this arrangement of undertakings endeavor to fulfill: created in 1924, Baldwin Water Works Plant needs redesigns and upgrades. We will compose a custom paper test on Baldwin Water Works or on the other hand any comparative theme explicitly for you Don't WasteYour Time Recruit WRITER Just 13.90/page The subsequent stage is for the program the board advisor (PMC) to fathom the projects targets. Around here case, as in numerous different cases, PMC isn't relegated early enough so as to take an interest in the arrangement of the targets; the destinations are built up by the programÃ¢â¬â¢s support. Moreover, so as to comprehend and approve PEPÃ¢â¬â¢s goals should, the PMC must think about PEPÃ¢â¬â¢s open nature; open programsÃ¢â¬â¢ targets Ã¢â¬Å"should be lined up with the significant needs in the general public and the necessities of the usersÃ¢â¬ (Samset as refered to in Shiferaw and Klakegg, standard. 1, pg. 14). As per the need and PEPÃ¢â¬â¢s nature, PMC must arrive at the accompanying targets: Evaluate and advance water gracefully Rehabilitate and modernize water treatment office, guaranteeing it is at its most noteworthy operational effectiveness and security Develop and execute new plant working framework Remake offices bringing about the least water rates conceivable Limit future facilitiesÃ¢â¬â¢ operational and support costs Renovate the current organization building, while at the same time keeping up its chronicled structure Supply ClevelandÃ¢â¬â¢s downtown and eastside networks with perfect and safe consumable water (City of Cleveland 2010, pg. 20). When the PMC has recognized the PEPÃ¢â¬â¢s objective, it needs to approve these targets in the extent of work (Kezner 2013, pg. 521). The Project Management Consultant is liable for all task exercises including arranging, plan, and development, and cost, time and quality administration. PMC will: recreate and improve water treatment offices by supplanting plantÃ¢â¬â¢s valves and channels, restoring plantÃ¢â¬â¢s channels, and moving from a manual operational framework to PLC-based operational framework; give preparing and hands-on help on the new operational framework for all representatives; meet and surpass existing and future guidelines set by the province of Ohio; perform engineering and auxiliary recovery of Baldwin Water Works chronicled organization building. At long last, during recreations and redesigns the PMC will keep the plant operational. After the foundation of the programÃ¢â¬â¢s targets and extent of work, the PMC must gauge the projectÃ¢â¬â¢s finish time, and all costs included; PMC must build up the programÃ¢â¬â¢s time plan and financial plan. One of the most helpful apparatuses for achieving those two errands is Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) (Lewis 2007, pg. 56). The program can be separated into four levels, as delineated in outline 1, page 4. By separating the program into explicit undertakings and assignments the PMC can all the more likely characterize expenses of the material, gear and exertion required for the projects exercises, and furthermore the time required. Notwithstanding the WBS and so as to ascertain generally the PEPÃ¢â¬â¢s costs, the PMC will utilize rough gauge. The PEPÃ¢â¬â¢s cost is evaluated by relationship to the Morgan Water Plant Rehabilitation program, in Cleveland, OH, which has a comparable extent of work and limit (Shook Construction 2013) (Kerzner 2013, pg. 680). The all out expense for the Morgan Water Plant Rehabilitation program was $26 million; the Baldwin Water Works Plan Enhancement Program is 15 percent increasingly troublesome, contemplating the fragile work essential for the remodel of the verifiable organization building. These outcome in an expected expense of $30 million for the fruition of our PEP (Kezner 2013, pg. 680) (www. shookconstruction. com). At last, the PMC recognizes two sorts of financial plans: circulated spending plan is characterized by the worker hours a required for the accomplishment of the undertakings and subtasks set up in the WBS, and the fundamental materials and gear required (for example 2,500 tons of 20Ã¢â¬ by 48Ã¢â¬ pliable iron funneling, 48Ã¢â¬ electrically enacted valves, PLC-Based control instruments, channel medias, record shingles, crane, drillers, solid, iron gunnels, brick work, outside windows); the executives hold of $3 million utilized if there should arise an occurrence of accelerations in development laborers pay rates, unanticipated deferrals coming about during faculty preparing on the new PLC-Based working framework, dangers Diagram 1. Baldwin Water Works Plant Enhancement Program WBS (Shook Construction 2013) (Bowen Associates Inc. 2013). Engaged with the instance of the organization building complex structures unsettling influence, changes in costs of fundamental material and gear (Kezner 2013, pg. 751). The all out PEPÃ¢â¬â¢s spending plan coming about after the ID of the two spending types is $33 million. Life Cycle, Time Plan notwithstanding WBS and so as to evaluate the time plan for the PEPÃ¢â¬â¢s culmination, PMC must characterize the projects life cycle. The most usually kind of life-cycle program utilized for development ventures is the successive one or cascade program life-cycle; this is the one that PMC will use for this particular case. As per cascade life-cycle the accompanying project stages are characterized: Diagram 2. Baldwin Water Works Program Life-Cycle (Hallows 2005, pg. 84) To more readily appraise the projectÃ¢â¬â¢s time of consummation or calendar, PMC needs to expound on the distinguished stages. During Phase 1, the PMC does an attainability study; at this stage the programÃ¢â¬â¢s objectives and destinations, specialized angles, challenges, quotes and advancement plan are characterized. At this stage and due to the projectÃ¢â¬â¢s open nature, the dedication and investment of nearby, state and government specialists are of a high significance. The City of Cleveland Water Division furnishes the PMC with the general rules, however it needs to partake in the improvement of the practicality concentrate so as to ensure that the sum total of what rules have been comprehended and mulled over by the PMC. Moreover, now the projectÃ¢â¬â¢s budgetary plausibility is being assessed. Out of the aggregate of $750 million to be given towards the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s four water treatment plants upgrade program, $33 million are circulated towards the Baldwin Water Works Plant Enhancement program. The time required for the consummation of the possibility study is a half year. Toward the finish of the examination the two activities, Renovation and Reconstruction, under the PEP are considered doable and endorsed for advancement by the City of Cleveland Water Division (proprietor). The finish of Phase 1 starts Phase 2; arranging of the PEP. At this stage the extent of work, referenced previously, is built up, goals are refined, expectations named, financial plan and timetable characterized. What's more, the City of Cleveland Landmarks CommissionÃ¢â¬â¢s rules towards the remodel of the notable organization building are being assessed and specialized qualities of that errand distinguished. Besides, State and Federal Governing Bodies guarantee that the programÃ¢â¬â¢s goals and specialized perspectives are adjusted to ebb and flow water guidelines, and that future improvements are being thought about. At last, dangers are recognized by the given inner and outside difficulties, assessed, and reactions are created. One year for the finish of Phase 2. The PMC at that point is pushing ahead with the detail plan of the undertakings and the assignments required so as to arrive at destinations and expectations; Phase 3. The two assignments under the Renovation venture are being created at this stage (Case Study). The PMC builds up an office plan by mapping out and organizing all the important enhancements of the plantÃ¢â¬â¢s offices. Furthermore an office arranging expert is employed to direct assessments of every single existing structure and indentify the RenovationÃ¢â¬â¢s extent of work. At that point Bowen Associates Inc. is recruited to give detail plan of the undertaking, give material, gear, structural designers, modelers, and development laborers for the building and basic assignments and subtasks delineated in Diagram 1 WBS (Bowen Associates Inc. 2013). Besides, Shook Construction Company is employed for the structure of the Reconstruction venture. Shook Construction is liable for giving all material and gear, structural designers, modelers, electrical and mechanical architects, and development laborers required for the fruition of the projectÃ¢â¬â¢s errands and subtasks delineated in Diagram 1 WBS. The time required for doing Phase 3 is one year. After the detail structure of the two projectsÃ¢â¬â¢ undertakings and subtasks, it is the ideal opportunity for the PMC to start the usage of the program; Phase 4. Both Shook Construction Company, answerable for the Reconst
Friday, July 10, 2020
Essay Topics on Water ConservationAlthough these essay topics on water conservation are more common in the literary world, most professional writers and academics are interested in preparing high quality work in various essay genres. Many students today are interested in writing studies for college entrance exams, such as the SAT or ACT. But finding the essay topics on water conservation, especially when a student is not well-versed in these areas, can be difficult.You may have encountered this situation during your typical practice writing classes, at your schools' writing centers, or by reading other students' essays. In the case of writing an essay on water conservation, one cannot simply go to his favorite essay topic and seek to highlight his interests and feelings. Rather, the student must find out the most prominent water conservation topics from the literature of water conservation and the professionals who have found that topic to be their particular specialty.First, you mus t start with an understanding of the main focus of each topic you decide to include. It would be too easy to get sidetracked in those topics where the writer has little to say. Each topic will require its own set of essay topics on water conservation, so focus on the most important ones to make your work the best. For example, a critical analysis of water conservation policy in the United States and in other countries may require you to write a substantial essay about the long history of governmental intervention in the water sector, as well as the recent past in which policies have been constantly changing to serve various water needs and demands.Second, think about the most important choices you have to make in your essays. Usually, the essay topics on water conservation require you to analyze the current state of the system and identify the major obstacles that affect consumers. From there, you need to determine ways to bring water conservation within reach, while addressing the underlying environmental issues.When considering these topics, you need to look beyond the scope of your own expertise. Find a college writing center, or a writing class, where professionals in the area of water conservation can help you. They can help you understand more about the latest trends in conservation and help you devise persuasive ways to gain your audience's attention. It may be helpful to obtain some written resources from these professionals.Third, check whether the writing centers and writing classes you have applied to offer writing workshops that include other writing courses, such as Introduction to Writing, which explore new ways to address difficult topics. If you've applied to several colleges, then you'll likely find one that offers writing workshops specifically for essay topics on water conservation. These workshops often include the writing and editing support of experienced experts. For your specific essay topics on water conservation, it may be helpful to include these workshops as part of your resume of available writing workshops offered by different writing centers.After you have explored all these possibilities, consider that essay topics on water conservation are most appropriate for your college's writing requirement. If you plan to work with a major theme, then make sure that this theme is clearly communicated and can be developed into a coherent essay. If the writing requirement does not have a distinct theme, then you need to choose a topic that covers your needs and interests, and that will be appealing to your readers.
Wednesday, May 20, 2020
Sociologists define race as a concept that is used to signify different types of human bodies. While there is no biological basis for racial classification, sociologists recognize a long history of attempts to organize groups of people based on similar skin color and physical appearance. The absence of any biological foundation makes race challenging to define and classify, and as such, sociologists view racial categories and the significance of race in society as unstable, always shifting, and intimately connected to other social forces and structures. Sociologists emphasize, though, that while race is not a concrete, fixed thing that is essential to human bodies, it is much more than simply an illusion. While it is socially constructed through human interaction and relationships between people and institutions, as a social force, race is real in its consequences. How to Understand Race Sociologists and racial theorists Howard Winant and Michael Omi provide a definition of race that situates it within social, historical, and political contexts, and that emphasizes the fundamental connection between racial categories and social conflict. In their book Ã¢â¬â¹Racial Formation in the United States,Ã Winant and Omi explain that race is: ...an unstable and Ã¢â¬ËdecenteredÃ¢â¬â¢ complex of social meanings constantly being transformed by political struggle,Ã¢â¬ and, that Ã¢â¬Å"...race is a concept which signifies and symbolizes social conflicts and interests by referring to different types of human bodies. Omi and Winant link race, and what it means, directly to political struggles between different groups of people, and to social conflicts which stem from competing group interests. To say that race is defined in large part by political struggle is to recognize how definitions of race and racial categories have shifted over time, as the political terrain has shifted. For example, within the context of the U.S., during the founding of the nation and the era of enslavement, definitions of black were premised on the belief that African and native-born slaves were dangerous brutesÃ¢â¬âwild, out of control people who needed to be controlled for their own sake, and the safety of those around them. Defining Ã¢â¬Å"blackÃ¢â¬ in this way served the political interests of the property-owning class of white men by justifying enslavement. This ultimately served the economic benefit of slave owners and all others who profited and benefited from the slave-labor economy. In contrast, early white abolitionists in the U.S. countered this definition of blackness with one that asserted, instead, that far from animalistic savages, Black slaves were humans worthy of freedom. As sociologist Jon D. Cruz documents in his book Ã¢â¬â¹Culture on the Margins, Christian abolitionists, in particular, argued that a soul was perceptible in the emotion expressed through the singing of slave songs and hymns and that this was proof of the humanity of Black slaves. They argued that this was a sign that slaves should be freed. This definition of race served as the ideological justification for the political and economic project of the northern battles against the southern war for secession. The Socio-Politics of Race in Todays World In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s context, one can observe similar political conflicts playing out among contemporary, competing definitions of blackness. An effort by Black Harvard students to assert their belonging at the Ivy League institution via a photography project titled Ã¢â¬Å"I, Too, Am Harvard,Ã¢â¬ demonstrates this. In the online series of portraits, Harvard students of Black descent hold before their bodies signs bearing racist questions and assumptions that are often directed toward them, and, their responses to these. The images demonstrate how conflicts over what Ã¢â¬Å"BlackÃ¢â¬ means play out in the Ivy League context. Some students shoot down the assumptionÃ that all Black women know how to twerk, while others assert their ability to read and their intellectual belonging on the campus. In essence, the studentsÃ refute the notion that blackness is simply a composite of stereotypes, and in doing so, complicate the dominant, mainstream definition of Ã¢â¬Å"Black.Ã¢â¬ Politically speaking, contemporary stereotypical definitions of Ã¢â¬Å"BlackÃ¢â¬ as a racial category do the ideological work of supporting the exclusion of Black students from, and marginalization within, elite higher educational spaces. This serves to preserve them as white spaces, which in turn preserves and reproduces white privilege and white control of the distribution of rights and resources within society. On the flip side, the definition of blackness presented by the photo project asserts the belonging of Black students within elite higher education institutions and asserts their right to have access to the same rights and resources that are afforded to others. This contemporary struggle to define racial categories and what they mean exemplifies Omi and Winants definition of race as unstable, ever-shifting, and politically contested.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Frederick Douglass was born in an unfortunate time period, considering he was born a slave. He was born in a town of Maryland entitled Talbot County. What is surprising about Douglass is the fact that historians do not know the exact year and date he was born, even Frederick does not know his own birthday. Later in DouglassÃ¢â¬â¢s life, he was sent to a home of Hugh Auld in Baltimore. This is where the masterÃ¢â¬â¢s wife, Sophia, taught Douglass how to read and write, which most slaves were denied this privilege. Even after DouglassÃ¢â¬â¢s master forced his wife to stop teaching, he continued to learn with the white children in the house. Through Douglass being educated in reading and writing, it caused him to form his own ideology about slavery.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This is important considering it caused not only slaves to rise up, but also other whites to defined slaves. Douglass was also used as propagandist for the cause of the Union and emancipation. Having an ac tual free black man as the face of the Union, in my opinion brought the emotional appeal the North needed to win the Civil War. The last factor that contributed to the Civil War was the writing and publication of his autobiology. I personally feel Frederick Douglass used his story and status to promote the Union cause, which made the South angry, considering they were already outnumber in the Congress and the House of Representatives. From my view point, Frederick Douglass just pushed the Southerns over the edge. Box B: The Dred Scott Case First letÃ¢â¬â¢s discuss who Dred Scott even was before talking about his case. Dred Scott was born a slave in 1795, in Southampton County, Virginia. It wasn t until after his owner died that Scott decided to fight for his freedom, as well as his familyÃ¢â¬â¢s. Scott actually worked in two different free states after his owner passed away, which caused him to try and buy his own freedom. However, he did not succeed the first time, so he brought his case to the Missouri courts. Once his case made it to the Missouri courts, he actually won, until the decision was overturned at the Supreme Court level. Scott later died in 1858. The Dred ScottShow MoreRelatedNature And Nature Of Frederick Douglass1529 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesbeen with Frederick Douglass even on his journey throughout his life. Nature lived amongst the other slaves as well. When being a slave at a plantation or being owned period, you become familiar with nature; if it is picking cotton, Ã¢â¬Å"tobacco, corn, and wheatÃ¢â¬ (Douglass 22) or if it is learning how to steer oxÃ¢â¬â¢s or learning how to drive a boat. Nature is with everything we do; nature is everything anyway because we are nature. We are just part of the huge spectrum of nature. Frederick Douglass was putRead MoreThe Effects Of Slavery : The Narrative Life Of Frederick Douglass915 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageslives would never escape the plantations that they were stationed in, luckily some slaves would manage to escape from time to time. One of these fortunate slaves was Frederick Douglass, a renowned advocate for freedom and equality who also exposed the mistreatment of slaves and encouraged people to join the abolitionist movement in his book The Narrative Life of Frederick Douglass. Even though slavery in America only lasted for about 245 years it completely changed the social structure of future generationsRead MoreThe Life Of A Slave Girl By Frederick Douglass And Harriet Jacobs1208 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesFrederick Douglass and Harriet Jacobs are both prominent influential authors of the Reform Era. Both writers, who spring forth from similar backgrounds and unimaginable situations, place a spotlight on the peculiar circumstances that surrounded the lives of the African American slaves. After reading and analyzing both Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl, and the Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass; readers discover the horrifying truths that belong to the past in connection to slavery.Read MoreFinding Identity in the Pathway from Slavery to Literacy Essay example1103 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesYou have seen how a man was made a slave; you shall see how a slave was made a man.Ã¢â¬ -Frederick Douglass, Narrative of the Life (1845) The most shameful practices of American history is the act of slavery from the whites to the African Americans. Many African Americans were born into slavery and forced to feel inferior towards their white masters. Actual human beings were treated like animals. The inhumane condition of slavery challenged African Americans to discover their individual true identityRead MoreFrederick Douglas And Solomon Northrup Essay1499 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesentered their plantations. However, slaves told a different story. Fredrick Douglass and Solomon NorthupÃ¢â¬â¢s experiences show how brutal and violent slave masters acted towards their slaves. In the Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, Douglass explains how his mistress, Mrs. Audd, began to treat Douglass with care when he first met her. As time progressed, she became brutal and much more worse than her husband. When Douglass first meets his mistress he describes her as Ã¢â¬Å"a women of the kindest heartRead MoreAn Analysis Of Harriet Jacobs And Frederick Douglass Essay1294 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesHarriet Jacobs and Frederick Douglass both wrote narratives that detailed their lives as slaves in the antebellum era. Both of these former slaves managed to escape to the North and wanted to expose slavery for the evil thing it was. The accounts tell equally of depravity and ugliness though they are different views of the same rotten institution. Like most who managed to escape the shackles of slavery, t hese two authors share a common bond of tenacity and authenticity. Their voices are differentÃ¢â¬âoneRead MoreThe Narrative Of The Life Of Frederick Douglass1129 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesand not try to do in order to make literacy rates rise. The most important reason for the decline of literacy rates is improper education. Our country is being plagued by unacceptable academic planning. Frederick Douglass once wrote in his book The Narrative of the life of Frederick Douglass Ã¢â¬Å"It is easier to build strong children then to repair a broken manÃ¢â¬ . Why not build strong children to help their future. The lack of funds in education provide us with many challenges and obstacles we needRead MoreFrederick Douglass s Life Of Slavery1783 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages Frederick DouglassÃ¢â¬â¢s Position on Slavery Slavery is severe in two ways; slavery is terrible for slaves, and slavery corrupts slave holders. Frederick Douglass spent his life trying to prove these two topics. He wrote his own books to show people who are not around slavery how horrid it is. He gave countless examples of his own life in order to abolish slavery. In the Narrative Life of Frederick Douglass written by Douglass himself, he says, Ã¢â¬Å"Sincerely and earnestly hoping that this little bookRead MoreAbolitionist Literature in the Eighteenth Century559 Words Ã |Ã 2 Pagesliterature further contributed to the intense feelings that people underwent as they were reading passages in these books. Individuals like Frederick Douglass and Harriet Beecher Stowe were among the most renowned abolitionist writers and their works played an essential role in emphasizing the wrongness of slavery. Frederick Douglass was among the people who were unfortunate enough to experience life as a slave. However, in comparison to other individuals who were mentally and physically rendered unableRead More The Dehumanization Process in the Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass: An American Slave2204 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesThe Dehumanization Process in the Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass: An American Slave Throughout American history, minority groups were victims of American governmental policies, and these policies made them vulnerable to barbaric and inhumane treatment at the hands of white Americans. American slavery is a telling example of a government sanctioned institution that victimized and oppressed a race of people by indoctrinating and encouraging enslavement, racism and abuse. This institution
Question: Describe about the Taxation for PIC Scheme of Singapore. Answer: (a) The productivity and innovation credit (PIC) scheme provides for 400% deduction for income tax purposes to the tax payers carrying on business. This 400% deduction is available on the expenditure incurred on the six prescribed activities which are regarded as the qualifying activities. Further, there is a maximum cap on this allowance which restricts the maximum deduction for each qualifying activity to $400,000 per annum (IRAS, 2016). One of the six qualifying activities is the acquisition and leasing of the IT and automation equipment. Thus, the expenditure incurred by the businessmen or business entity on acquiring the IT and automation equipment is allowed for 400% deduction under PIC scheme for the income tax purposes. However, it is worthwhile to note in this regard that all the IT and automation equipments are not allowed for deduction, these are only the IT and automation equipments which are prescribed by the income tax authorities. Further, it is also provided that if a particular IT and automation equipment is not prescribed by the income tax authority, the tax payer may apply to the ministry or comptroller of income tax for approval of such equipment (IRAS, 2016). In regard to the advertisement given by Poh Choo, it has been observed that the claims made therein are not correct. The advertisement pamphlet claims that the hardware, software, and related costs incurred are eligible for 100% PIC claims, which is not true. From the provisions of PIC scheme, it is quite clear that only approved expenditure on the IT and automation equipments is allowable for deduction under PIC. The approved list of IT and automation equipments includes facsimile, optical character reader, laser printer, computers, office system software etc (IRAS, 2016). Further, the deduction is not restricted to 100%; rather it is allowable up to 400% of the expenditure incurred. (b) As per the provisions of income tax and PIC scheme, the relevant calculations for the company have been shown in the tables presented below: Tax Deduction Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Total Adjusted profit of the business 100,000.00 100,000.00 100,000.00 Add: Expected increase @40% 40,000.00 40,000.00 A. Total 100,000.00 140,000.00 140,000.00 Qualifying expenditure for PIC Claims Cost of software and automated equipment 25,000.00 - - Website 8,000.00 - - B. Total 33,000.00 - - C. PIC claim (400%*B) 132,000.00 - - D. Income/loss (A-C) (32,000.00) 140,000.00 140,000.00 Less: Maintenance 850.00 850.00 850.00 E. Taxable income - 139,150.00 139,150.00 F. Brought forward losses set off (32,000.00) G. Net Taxable income - 107,150.00 139,150.00 H. Tax @17% (IRAS, 2016) - 18,215.50 23,655.50 41,871.00 The table presented above shows the net cash payout of the company when it opts for PIC deduction in place of cash payout plan. It could be observed that if the company opts for PIC deductions, then its net cash payout will be $41,871.00 in the form of income tax paid. However, there is an alternative available to the company in which it can opt for cash payout instead of PIC deductions. Calculations in this connection are shown in the table given below: PIC Cash Payout Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Adjusted profit of the business 100,000.00 100,000.00 100,000.00 Add: Expected increase @40% 40,000.00 40,000.00 A. Total 100,000.00 140,000.00 140,000.00 B. Normal Deductions 33,000.00 - - C. Maintenance 850.00 850.00 850.00 D. Taxable income (A-B-C) 66,150.00 139,150.00 139,150.00 E. Tax @17% (IRAS, 2016) 11,245.50 23,655.50 23,655.50 58,556.50 F. PIC cash payout (60%*33000) 19,800.00 - - 19,800.00 G. Net cash payout (E-F) 38,756.50 In order to claim cash payout under PIC scheme, the taxpayer should have at least three local employees falling under CPF contribution provisions. In the current case, the company has three employees which fall under the CPF contribution provisions; thus, it is eligible to claim cash payout under PIC scheme (IRAS, 2016). It could be observed from the table that net cash payout of the company under this alternative is $38,756.50. The net cash payout of the company is lower in this alternative as compared to the previous one. Therefore, it is advised that the company chooses PIC cash payout plan in place of PIC deduction plan. Reference IRAS. 2016. Productivity and Innovation Credit (PIC) Scheme. [Online]. Available at: https://www.iras.gov.sg/irashome/uploadedFiles/IRASHome/Businesses/PIC%20Seminar%20for%20Medical%20Practitioner.pdf [Accessed on: 30 November 2016]. IRAS. 2016. Overview of PIC IT and Automation Equipment. [Online]. Available at: https://www.iras.gov.sg/irashome/Schemes/Businesses/Productivity-and-Innovation-Credit-Scheme/Six-Qualifying-Activities-under-PIC/Acquisition-and-Leasing-of-PIC-IT-and-Automation-Equipment/ [Accessed on: 30 November 2016]. IRAS. 2016. Corporate Tax Rates, Corporate Income Tax Rebates, Tax Exemption Schemes and SME Cash Grant. [Online]. Available at: https://www.iras.gov.sg/irashome/Businesses/Companies/Learning-the-basics-of-Corporate-Income-Tax/Corporate-Tax-Rates--Corporate-Income-Tax-Rebates--Tax-Exemption-Schemes-and-SME-Cash-Grant/ [Accessed on: 30 November 2016].
Thursday, April 23, 2020
Maintaining Operations by Expert Prof Nelly | 06 Dec 2016 In this global business world, there is an immense amount of variety of products that the customers can choose from. In every field and industry, there are competitors, old and new, all coming up with new and innovative ideas to increase their market share in their respective fields. The food industry is one such industry. It has been growing at very fast pace. Companies like Kraft and Nestle have captured the market and have been successful in building a large clientele. Need essay sample on "Maintaining Operations" topic? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you Proceed These two companies also appear to be the most potential career options for employment. This is mainly because of their financial success and high levels of profitability over the years. Both companies have been in the business for over a hundred years and have left their mark. Consumers perceive the products of these companies as brands that can be trusted and leave them satisfied. In today's fast moving world customer expectations is a dynamic notion. With time, customer expectations also undergo a change. This maybe due to social trends, health awareness, and development in tastes and so on and so forth. Kraft which is a U.S. based food manufacturing company is also the third largest food and beverage company in the world. Since the United States is a developed country where a great amount of emphasis is placed on time, customers expect food to be convenient to eat. However, there is no compromise on quality and taste. Customers not only expect delicious taste in their food but also expect it to be healthy. Customer expectations however do not come to an end here. In today's world where there is an immense amount of competition in the food industry, customers expect companies like Kraft and Nestle, a Switzerland based company, to offer them a wide variety of products. Once there is brand loyalty, customers are willing to stick to the same brand for other similar products as well (Plunket, Attner & Allen, 2007). Both companies have international presence and customers for both companies have similar expectations. Both companies have also been successful in meeting customer expectations. Kraft offers a wide range of products from cheese to chips and cookies. It has been successful in satisfying customers with brands like Velveeta, Chips ahoy and Oreo. Nestle on the other hand has also been able to build successful brands like Nido, Nescafe and Movenpick (Roberts, 2001). Customer needs should be the highest priority for an organization but for companies like Kraft and Nestle, customer needs become an essential determinant in their success and therefore their constant effort to expand their customer base enhances their quality of products. Kraft realizing customer preferences came out with the raspberry crme flavor of the fruit hard candy, Crme Savers .The company's ability to include customers in their product decisions in order to produce what the customers desire certainly is the reason behind their success(Roberts, W. 2001). Nestle on the other hand has also been investing to meet customer expectations. The latest production line in Poland to increase its market share there depicts the company's efforts to keep its large clientele happy (Anonymous, 2004). Quality maintenance thus becomes an important aspect of customer satisfaction. It is only through high quality products that these companies are able to maintain a large customer base. At Kraft, quality processes such as SENECA (Sensory and Experimental collection application) and PVR (Process variation reduction) ensure that the products are of highest quality and meet customer expectations. These are enhanced processes that ensure that each unit of the products tastes exactly like the previous one enjoyed by the consumer. It is through the use of technology driven processes and high quality standards that both companies have been meeting the demands of their customer throughout the world. Reference: Anonymous, (May 12, 2004). Nestl Poland cranks up ice cream production. Retrieved on June 29, 2008. Plunkett, W.R., Attner, R.F. & Allen, G.S. (2007). Management: Meeting and Exceeding Customer Expectations.9th edn, South-Western College Roberts, W. (Sept, 2001). The 'Big' Gets Bigger. Retrieved on June 29, 2008 from: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3289/is_9_170/ai_78576171/pg_2