Wednesday, May 20, 2020
Sociologists define race as a concept that is used to signify different types of human bodies. While there is no biological basis for racial classification, sociologists recognize a long history of attempts to organize groups of people based on similar skin color and physical appearance. The absence of any biological foundation makes race challenging to define and classify, and as such, sociologists view racial categories and the significance of race in society as unstable, always shifting, and intimately connected to other social forces and structures. Sociologists emphasize, though, that while race is not a concrete, fixed thing that is essential to human bodies, it is much more than simply an illusion. While it is socially constructed through human interaction and relationships between people and institutions, as a social force, race is real in its consequences. How to Understand Race Sociologists and racial theorists Howard Winant and Michael Omi provide a definition of race that situates it within social, historical, and political contexts, and that emphasizes the fundamental connection between racial categories and social conflict. In their book Ã¢â¬â¹Racial Formation in the United States,Ã Winant and Omi explain that race is: ...an unstable and Ã¢â¬ËdecenteredÃ¢â¬â¢ complex of social meanings constantly being transformed by political struggle,Ã¢â¬ and, that Ã¢â¬Å"...race is a concept which signifies and symbolizes social conflicts and interests by referring to different types of human bodies. Omi and Winant link race, and what it means, directly to political struggles between different groups of people, and to social conflicts which stem from competing group interests. To say that race is defined in large part by political struggle is to recognize how definitions of race and racial categories have shifted over time, as the political terrain has shifted. For example, within the context of the U.S., during the founding of the nation and the era of enslavement, definitions of black were premised on the belief that African and native-born slaves were dangerous brutesÃ¢â¬âwild, out of control people who needed to be controlled for their own sake, and the safety of those around them. Defining Ã¢â¬Å"blackÃ¢â¬ in this way served the political interests of the property-owning class of white men by justifying enslavement. This ultimately served the economic benefit of slave owners and all others who profited and benefited from the slave-labor economy. In contrast, early white abolitionists in the U.S. countered this definition of blackness with one that asserted, instead, that far from animalistic savages, Black slaves were humans worthy of freedom. As sociologist Jon D. Cruz documents in his book Ã¢â¬â¹Culture on the Margins, Christian abolitionists, in particular, argued that a soul was perceptible in the emotion expressed through the singing of slave songs and hymns and that this was proof of the humanity of Black slaves. They argued that this was a sign that slaves should be freed. This definition of race served as the ideological justification for the political and economic project of the northern battles against the southern war for secession. The Socio-Politics of Race in Todays World In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s context, one can observe similar political conflicts playing out among contemporary, competing definitions of blackness. An effort by Black Harvard students to assert their belonging at the Ivy League institution via a photography project titled Ã¢â¬Å"I, Too, Am Harvard,Ã¢â¬ demonstrates this. In the online series of portraits, Harvard students of Black descent hold before their bodies signs bearing racist questions and assumptions that are often directed toward them, and, their responses to these. The images demonstrate how conflicts over what Ã¢â¬Å"BlackÃ¢â¬ means play out in the Ivy League context. Some students shoot down the assumptionÃ that all Black women know how to twerk, while others assert their ability to read and their intellectual belonging on the campus. In essence, the studentsÃ refute the notion that blackness is simply a composite of stereotypes, and in doing so, complicate the dominant, mainstream definition of Ã¢â¬Å"Black.Ã¢â¬ Politically speaking, contemporary stereotypical definitions of Ã¢â¬Å"BlackÃ¢â¬ as a racial category do the ideological work of supporting the exclusion of Black students from, and marginalization within, elite higher educational spaces. This serves to preserve them as white spaces, which in turn preserves and reproduces white privilege and white control of the distribution of rights and resources within society. On the flip side, the definition of blackness presented by the photo project asserts the belonging of Black students within elite higher education institutions and asserts their right to have access to the same rights and resources that are afforded to others. This contemporary struggle to define racial categories and what they mean exemplifies Omi and Winants definition of race as unstable, ever-shifting, and politically contested.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Frederick Douglass was born in an unfortunate time period, considering he was born a slave. He was born in a town of Maryland entitled Talbot County. What is surprising about Douglass is the fact that historians do not know the exact year and date he was born, even Frederick does not know his own birthday. Later in DouglassÃ¢â¬â¢s life, he was sent to a home of Hugh Auld in Baltimore. This is where the masterÃ¢â¬â¢s wife, Sophia, taught Douglass how to read and write, which most slaves were denied this privilege. Even after DouglassÃ¢â¬â¢s master forced his wife to stop teaching, he continued to learn with the white children in the house. Through Douglass being educated in reading and writing, it caused him to form his own ideology about slavery.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This is important considering it caused not only slaves to rise up, but also other whites to defined slaves. Douglass was also used as propagandist for the cause of the Union and emancipation. Having an ac tual free black man as the face of the Union, in my opinion brought the emotional appeal the North needed to win the Civil War. The last factor that contributed to the Civil War was the writing and publication of his autobiology. I personally feel Frederick Douglass used his story and status to promote the Union cause, which made the South angry, considering they were already outnumber in the Congress and the House of Representatives. From my view point, Frederick Douglass just pushed the Southerns over the edge. Box B: The Dred Scott Case First letÃ¢â¬â¢s discuss who Dred Scott even was before talking about his case. Dred Scott was born a slave in 1795, in Southampton County, Virginia. It wasn t until after his owner died that Scott decided to fight for his freedom, as well as his familyÃ¢â¬â¢s. Scott actually worked in two different free states after his owner passed away, which caused him to try and buy his own freedom. However, he did not succeed the first time, so he brought his case to the Missouri courts. Once his case made it to the Missouri courts, he actually won, until the decision was overturned at the Supreme Court level. Scott later died in 1858. The Dred ScottShow MoreRelatedNature And Nature Of Frederick Douglass1529 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesbeen with Frederick Douglass even on his journey throughout his life. Nature lived amongst the other slaves as well. When being a slave at a plantation or being owned period, you become familiar with nature; if it is picking cotton, Ã¢â¬Å"tobacco, corn, and wheatÃ¢â¬ (Douglass 22) or if it is learning how to steer oxÃ¢â¬â¢s or learning how to drive a boat. Nature is with everything we do; nature is everything anyway because we are nature. We are just part of the huge spectrum of nature. Frederick Douglass was putRead MoreThe Effects Of Slavery : The Narrative Life Of Frederick Douglass915 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageslives would never escape the plantations that they were stationed in, luckily some slaves would manage to escape from time to time. One of these fortunate slaves was Frederick Douglass, a renowned advocate for freedom and equality who also exposed the mistreatment of slaves and encouraged people to join the abolitionist movement in his book The Narrative Life of Frederick Douglass. Even though slavery in America only lasted for about 245 years it completely changed the social structure of future generationsRead MoreThe Life Of A Slave Girl By Frederick Douglass And Harriet Jacobs1208 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesFrederick Douglass and Harriet Jacobs are both prominent influential authors of the Reform Era. Both writers, who spring forth from similar backgrounds and unimaginable situations, place a spotlight on the peculiar circumstances that surrounded the lives of the African American slaves. After reading and analyzing both Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl, and the Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass; readers discover the horrifying truths that belong to the past in connection to slavery.Read MoreFinding Identity in the Pathway from Slavery to Literacy Essay example1103 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesYou have seen how a man was made a slave; you shall see how a slave was made a man.Ã¢â¬ -Frederick Douglass, Narrative of the Life (1845) The most shameful practices of American history is the act of slavery from the whites to the African Americans. Many African Americans were born into slavery and forced to feel inferior towards their white masters. Actual human beings were treated like animals. The inhumane condition of slavery challenged African Americans to discover their individual true identityRead MoreFrederick Douglas And Solomon Northrup Essay1499 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesentered their plantations. However, slaves told a different story. Fredrick Douglass and Solomon NorthupÃ¢â¬â¢s experiences show how brutal and violent slave masters acted towards their slaves. In the Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, Douglass explains how his mistress, Mrs. Audd, began to treat Douglass with care when he first met her. As time progressed, she became brutal and much more worse than her husband. When Douglass first meets his mistress he describes her as Ã¢â¬Å"a women of the kindest heartRead MoreAn Analysis Of Harriet Jacobs And Frederick Douglass Essay1294 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesHarriet Jacobs and Frederick Douglass both wrote narratives that detailed their lives as slaves in the antebellum era. Both of these former slaves managed to escape to the North and wanted to expose slavery for the evil thing it was. The accounts tell equally of depravity and ugliness though they are different views of the same rotten institution. Like most who managed to escape the shackles of slavery, t hese two authors share a common bond of tenacity and authenticity. Their voices are differentÃ¢â¬âoneRead MoreThe Narrative Of The Life Of Frederick Douglass1129 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesand not try to do in order to make literacy rates rise. The most important reason for the decline of literacy rates is improper education. Our country is being plagued by unacceptable academic planning. Frederick Douglass once wrote in his book The Narrative of the life of Frederick Douglass Ã¢â¬Å"It is easier to build strong children then to repair a broken manÃ¢â¬ . Why not build strong children to help their future. The lack of funds in education provide us with many challenges and obstacles we needRead MoreFrederick Douglass s Life Of Slavery1783 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages Frederick DouglassÃ¢â¬â¢s Position on Slavery Slavery is severe in two ways; slavery is terrible for slaves, and slavery corrupts slave holders. Frederick Douglass spent his life trying to prove these two topics. He wrote his own books to show people who are not around slavery how horrid it is. He gave countless examples of his own life in order to abolish slavery. In the Narrative Life of Frederick Douglass written by Douglass himself, he says, Ã¢â¬Å"Sincerely and earnestly hoping that this little bookRead MoreAbolitionist Literature in the Eighteenth Century559 Words Ã |Ã 2 Pagesliterature further contributed to the intense feelings that people underwent as they were reading passages in these books. Individuals like Frederick Douglass and Harriet Beecher Stowe were among the most renowned abolitionist writers and their works played an essential role in emphasizing the wrongness of slavery. Frederick Douglass was among the people who were unfortunate enough to experience life as a slave. However, in comparison to other individuals who were mentally and physically rendered unableRead More The Dehumanization Process in the Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass: An American Slave2204 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesThe Dehumanization Process in the Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass: An American Slave Throughout American history, minority groups were victims of American governmental policies, and these policies made them vulnerable to barbaric and inhumane treatment at the hands of white Americans. American slavery is a telling example of a government sanctioned institution that victimized and oppressed a race of people by indoctrinating and encouraging enslavement, racism and abuse. This institution
Question: Describe about the Taxation for PIC Scheme of Singapore. Answer: (a) The productivity and innovation credit (PIC) scheme provides for 400% deduction for income tax purposes to the tax payers carrying on business. This 400% deduction is available on the expenditure incurred on the six prescribed activities which are regarded as the qualifying activities. Further, there is a maximum cap on this allowance which restricts the maximum deduction for each qualifying activity to $400,000 per annum (IRAS, 2016). One of the six qualifying activities is the acquisition and leasing of the IT and automation equipment. Thus, the expenditure incurred by the businessmen or business entity on acquiring the IT and automation equipment is allowed for 400% deduction under PIC scheme for the income tax purposes. However, it is worthwhile to note in this regard that all the IT and automation equipments are not allowed for deduction, these are only the IT and automation equipments which are prescribed by the income tax authorities. Further, it is also provided that if a particular IT and automation equipment is not prescribed by the income tax authority, the tax payer may apply to the ministry or comptroller of income tax for approval of such equipment (IRAS, 2016). In regard to the advertisement given by Poh Choo, it has been observed that the claims made therein are not correct. The advertisement pamphlet claims that the hardware, software, and related costs incurred are eligible for 100% PIC claims, which is not true. From the provisions of PIC scheme, it is quite clear that only approved expenditure on the IT and automation equipments is allowable for deduction under PIC. The approved list of IT and automation equipments includes facsimile, optical character reader, laser printer, computers, office system software etc (IRAS, 2016). Further, the deduction is not restricted to 100%; rather it is allowable up to 400% of the expenditure incurred. (b) As per the provisions of income tax and PIC scheme, the relevant calculations for the company have been shown in the tables presented below: Tax Deduction Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Total Adjusted profit of the business 100,000.00 100,000.00 100,000.00 Add: Expected increase @40% 40,000.00 40,000.00 A. Total 100,000.00 140,000.00 140,000.00 Qualifying expenditure for PIC Claims Cost of software and automated equipment 25,000.00 - - Website 8,000.00 - - B. Total 33,000.00 - - C. PIC claim (400%*B) 132,000.00 - - D. Income/loss (A-C) (32,000.00) 140,000.00 140,000.00 Less: Maintenance 850.00 850.00 850.00 E. Taxable income - 139,150.00 139,150.00 F. Brought forward losses set off (32,000.00) G. Net Taxable income - 107,150.00 139,150.00 H. Tax @17% (IRAS, 2016) - 18,215.50 23,655.50 41,871.00 The table presented above shows the net cash payout of the company when it opts for PIC deduction in place of cash payout plan. It could be observed that if the company opts for PIC deductions, then its net cash payout will be $41,871.00 in the form of income tax paid. However, there is an alternative available to the company in which it can opt for cash payout instead of PIC deductions. Calculations in this connection are shown in the table given below: PIC Cash Payout Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Adjusted profit of the business 100,000.00 100,000.00 100,000.00 Add: Expected increase @40% 40,000.00 40,000.00 A. Total 100,000.00 140,000.00 140,000.00 B. Normal Deductions 33,000.00 - - C. Maintenance 850.00 850.00 850.00 D. Taxable income (A-B-C) 66,150.00 139,150.00 139,150.00 E. Tax @17% (IRAS, 2016) 11,245.50 23,655.50 23,655.50 58,556.50 F. PIC cash payout (60%*33000) 19,800.00 - - 19,800.00 G. Net cash payout (E-F) 38,756.50 In order to claim cash payout under PIC scheme, the taxpayer should have at least three local employees falling under CPF contribution provisions. In the current case, the company has three employees which fall under the CPF contribution provisions; thus, it is eligible to claim cash payout under PIC scheme (IRAS, 2016). It could be observed from the table that net cash payout of the company under this alternative is $38,756.50. The net cash payout of the company is lower in this alternative as compared to the previous one. Therefore, it is advised that the company chooses PIC cash payout plan in place of PIC deduction plan. Reference IRAS. 2016. Productivity and Innovation Credit (PIC) Scheme. [Online]. Available at: https://www.iras.gov.sg/irashome/uploadedFiles/IRASHome/Businesses/PIC%20Seminar%20for%20Medical%20Practitioner.pdf [Accessed on: 30 November 2016]. IRAS. 2016. Overview of PIC IT and Automation Equipment. [Online]. Available at: https://www.iras.gov.sg/irashome/Schemes/Businesses/Productivity-and-Innovation-Credit-Scheme/Six-Qualifying-Activities-under-PIC/Acquisition-and-Leasing-of-PIC-IT-and-Automation-Equipment/ [Accessed on: 30 November 2016]. IRAS. 2016. Corporate Tax Rates, Corporate Income Tax Rebates, Tax Exemption Schemes and SME Cash Grant. [Online]. Available at: https://www.iras.gov.sg/irashome/Businesses/Companies/Learning-the-basics-of-Corporate-Income-Tax/Corporate-Tax-Rates--Corporate-Income-Tax-Rebates--Tax-Exemption-Schemes-and-SME-Cash-Grant/ [Accessed on: 30 November 2016].
Thursday, April 23, 2020
Maintaining Operations by Expert Prof Nelly | 06 Dec 2016 In this global business world, there is an immense amount of variety of products that the customers can choose from. In every field and industry, there are competitors, old and new, all coming up with new and innovative ideas to increase their market share in their respective fields. The food industry is one such industry. It has been growing at very fast pace. Companies like Kraft and Nestle have captured the market and have been successful in building a large clientele. Need essay sample on "Maintaining Operations" topic? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you Proceed These two companies also appear to be the most potential career options for employment. This is mainly because of their financial success and high levels of profitability over the years. Both companies have been in the business for over a hundred years and have left their mark. Consumers perceive the products of these companies as brands that can be trusted and leave them satisfied. In today's fast moving world customer expectations is a dynamic notion. With time, customer expectations also undergo a change. This maybe due to social trends, health awareness, and development in tastes and so on and so forth. Kraft which is a U.S. based food manufacturing company is also the third largest food and beverage company in the world. Since the United States is a developed country where a great amount of emphasis is placed on time, customers expect food to be convenient to eat. However, there is no compromise on quality and taste. Customers not only expect delicious taste in their food but also expect it to be healthy. Customer expectations however do not come to an end here. In today's world where there is an immense amount of competition in the food industry, customers expect companies like Kraft and Nestle, a Switzerland based company, to offer them a wide variety of products. Once there is brand loyalty, customers are willing to stick to the same brand for other similar products as well (Plunket, Attner & Allen, 2007). Both companies have international presence and customers for both companies have similar expectations. Both companies have also been successful in meeting customer expectations. Kraft offers a wide range of products from cheese to chips and cookies. It has been successful in satisfying customers with brands like Velveeta, Chips ahoy and Oreo. Nestle on the other hand has also been able to build successful brands like Nido, Nescafe and Movenpick (Roberts, 2001). Customer needs should be the highest priority for an organization but for companies like Kraft and Nestle, customer needs become an essential determinant in their success and therefore their constant effort to expand their customer base enhances their quality of products. Kraft realizing customer preferences came out with the raspberry crme flavor of the fruit hard candy, Crme Savers .The company's ability to include customers in their product decisions in order to produce what the customers desire certainly is the reason behind their success(Roberts, W. 2001). Nestle on the other hand has also been investing to meet customer expectations. The latest production line in Poland to increase its market share there depicts the company's efforts to keep its large clientele happy (Anonymous, 2004). Quality maintenance thus becomes an important aspect of customer satisfaction. It is only through high quality products that these companies are able to maintain a large customer base. At Kraft, quality processes such as SENECA (Sensory and Experimental collection application) and PVR (Process variation reduction) ensure that the products are of highest quality and meet customer expectations. These are enhanced processes that ensure that each unit of the products tastes exactly like the previous one enjoyed by the consumer. It is through the use of technology driven processes and high quality standards that both companies have been meeting the demands of their customer throughout the world. Reference: Anonymous, (May 12, 2004). Nestl Poland cranks up ice cream production. Retrieved on June 29, 2008. Plunkett, W.R., Attner, R.F. & Allen, G.S. (2007). Management: Meeting and Exceeding Customer Expectations.9th edn, South-Western College Roberts, W. (Sept, 2001). The 'Big' Gets Bigger. Retrieved on June 29, 2008 from: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3289/is_9_170/ai_78576171/pg_2
Tuesday, March 17, 2020
Private School Vs Public School Essays Private School Vs Public School Essay Private School Vs Public School Essay Private School Vs Public School BY mane12704 Private School Vs Public School: Some differences to consider before making a decision Private School Vs Public School: Some Differences to Consider before Making a Decision Education is a vital issue today. Choosing where to send their children to school is one of the hardest decisions parents have to make. Should they enroll their children in an expensive school? Or should they enroll them in a public school, in order to save money? Will the child still get a quality education? Will the child succeed in his/her studies? Will the child get the right values and grow up to be a roper citizen? These are Just a few of the questions that a parent should ask him or herself before enrolling his/her child in school. There are two types of schools from which parents have to choose to send their children for an education: private and public schools. These schools have similarities but are very different. In order to make a good decision, parents should know the differences between one and the other. Those differences lie in admission, financing, and management process. According to a comparative study, Public schools admit more applicants (36 percent) han did private schools (23 percent) and were less likely than public schools to admit students on the basis of test performance (55 percent and 65 percent respectively). Private schools retain the right to select their students. They accept any student it wishes according to its academic and other standards. It is not required to give a reason why it has refused to admit anyone.. Admission age to Dominican children is in most private institutions starting from two years old. By contrast, public schools must accept all students within their Jurisdiction with few or any exceptions, and they tart from five years old with initial level. Private schools, also known as independent schools or nonstate schools, are not administered by local, state or national governments are funded in whole or in part by charging their students tuition, rather than relying on mandatory taxation through public (government) funding. In private schools, charges are for every aspect of their programs and fees are determined by market forces. Private schools take no public funding. In contrast, Public schools are totally supported by the government or public funding and they are not allowed to charge any tuition fees. Private and public schools differ significantly in terms of their management organization. In most developing countries, public schools are financed and managed by the central government. Teachers are hired and deployed by a central agency, the curriculum is set nationally and admission to secondary school is often controlled by national examinations with students placed in schools through central agency. As a result, neither the local community nor the school principal exercises much control over key decisions. Unlike centrally control public schools, private schools in both develop and developing countries exercise managerial control ver a wide range of decisions. For example, research has found that, in U. S. private schools, principals, teachers and parents have significantly greater control over decisions about the curriculum, instructional methods, allocating funds, hiring public schools. Both, private and public schools, have the same goal, to teach and educate children in developing necessary skills for becoming a valuable and useful person in society. By making a comparison and looking at the mentioned differences, parents can make the right choice and of course the most convenient to them and their children.
Saturday, February 29, 2020
Introduction of QR codes contributed significantly improvement of advertising and enhancing efficiency for an organization. The codes help an organization to offer customers a chance to obtain extra information about the product or the company itself. QR codes offer companies an excellent chance for advertising because the symbols used can be used be converted into video and thus helping to convey the message to the customer. The QR code works in such away a way that the company uses a QR code generator to design a readable and interesting message (Dacko, 2012). For the customer to see or read the message or the content of the QR code, they should have a smart phone which has QR reader application. One of the advantages of QR code over bar codes is that consumers will tend to spend more time on the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s website which may influence their decision to buy. QR codes are capable of holding bulk information which makes it very convenient for companies using it. This report anal yzes how QR codes influences the decision making processes for individual consumers. It also analyzes the use of the codes in marketing and how efficient they are. 1. QR codes are used in several stages of consumer decision making process. The first stage in which QR codes are used by decision makers is the information searching stage. This is the stage where a customer gathers information about a particular product or line of product after identifying his/her needs. Searching of information helps the consumer to make informed purchase decisions. Since QR code offers quick access to a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s information, the consumer can therefore obtain useful information from the website (Bryson & Daniels, 2015). The website may contain information on product offered, description, prices, after sale services offered and other useful information on the product that the consumer wants to buy. Therefore, by using QR codes, a company such as Gellerie can provide information on a product to the consumers easily. QR codes are also useful in evaluation of alternatives by the consumer. The consumer can scan the QR code and get access to the different types of products offered by a particular company. For example a McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s customer can identify th e available flavors and varieties of Pizza by using QR codes (Haase, 2011). A customer can also compare different companies by accessing their QR codes. QR is also important in the post purchase evaluation. Consumers can compare what they bought with what was promised in the QR code. Consumers also obtain usage prescriptions and manual for machines and equipment to guide them in using the product. 2. There is huge marketing opportunity in the service sector. This is because, QR codes helps in making provision of services more efficient. This is therefore very important since the aim of every service provider is to offer efficient and reliable services to its customers. QR codes can be used in the retail business to check information on a product. An example is when a consumer wants to buy a product in a supermarket; he/she can scan the QR code to obtain information on the manufacturer of the product. A QR code can also be used in the financial services industry. Banks can place QR codes in their products such as cheques which customers can scan to get information on the state of their account and market the institution to its customers. The banks can include information on products offered and interest rates. QR codes can also be used in the health services sector. An example is an hospital issuing its patients QR codes to identify the period of time it will take them to be s erved and their number in the queue (Kotler, Armstrong, & Harris, 2017).This will help to eliminate physical queuing by patients. In the transport industry, QR codes can be used in place of paper tickets. Customers can book to travel online and then obtain a unique QR code which contains their identification details and all other relevant information. 3. The fact that use of QR codes help in bypassing multiple layers of distribution and support marketing. This not only applies in the goods market as well as in the service market. The advantages of bypassing multiple layers of distribution in the service sector include; Increasing efficiency in an organization by reducing the time taken to serve each customer. This happens by reducing the procedures that a customer should go through before getting the service they require. The use of QR codes are important in reducing layers of distribution by making it possible for customers to obtain some services online instead of physically. QR codes helps an organization to market the services it offers by giving customers QR through which they can access extra information about the company (Russell, 2010). By reducing support services, the organization will be able to reduce costs that it would have otherwise incurred and therefore its important in reducing costs which in turn increase profit margins. The level of customer satisfaction isÃ also increased when layers of distribution reduce. This is very important in maintaining existing customers by an organization. 4. QR codes affect perceived risks of a product through various ways. One of the ways in which the use of QR codes has affected the perceived risk in the service industry is that it has reduced the risk of delay in getting services. Time Is a very important factor especially in the service industry and therefore, there is always a risk not getting the services a consumer needed on time. Since use of QR codes helps in reducing distribution layers and reducing the time taken to serve each customer, the use of QR codes will reduce the perceived risk of delay in service delivery. QR codes also reduce the perceived risk of getting poor services from an organization (Woodall, 2007). By using the QR codes, customers are assured of good services from the service provider since the QR code offers important information on the services offered and the organization itself. The use of QR codes helps to reduce the perceived risk of loss of confidentiality. Since most consumers of services are ver y concerned about confidentiality, the use of QR code will help reduce the risk of unauthorized persons gaining access to their private information. 5. Use of QR codes has been very fundamental in improving service support and customer satisfaction both in the service industry and the product market. There are other forms of interactive content that can be developed to improve service delivery. One of this content is the development of a self service application that can be used by customers to obtain services online. This will help the customers to get the service they require very quickly and conveniently without having to visit the facility physically. Development of a machine that can be used to make deposits in the bank like an ATM is used for withdrawing would be important in improving services and customer satisfaction in the financial services industry. This will help in eliminating long queues in the banks. QR code should be used by companies more in promoting and advertising their products and services. This will help in reducing the costs incurred by organization in advertising. Organizations should be innovative and embrace the use of interactive technology in adding value to the services offered to consumers Bryson, J. R., & Daniels, P. W. (2015). Handbook of Service Business: Management, Marketing, Innovation and Internationalisation. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing. Dacko, S. (2012). Time?of?day services marketing. Journal Of Services Marketing, 26(5), 375-388. https://dx.doi.org/10.1108/08876041211245290 Haase, M. (2011). Service-Dominant Logic for Marketing. Marketing ZFP, 33(2), 98-110. https://dx.doi.org/10.15358/0344-1369-2011-2-98 Information Resources Management Association. (2016). Web-based services: Concepts, methodologies, tools, and applications. Kotler, P., Armstrong, G., & Harris, L. (2017). Principles of marketing (1st ed.). New York: Pearson. Russell, E. (2010). The fundamentals of marketing (1st ed.). Lausanne: AVA Academia. Woodall, T. (2007). New marketing, improved marketing, apocryphal marketing. European Journal Of Marketing, 41(11/12), 1284-1296. https://dx.doi.org/10.1108/03090560710821170
Thursday, February 13, 2020
Discussion Board - Assignment Example This highlights the importance of several types of task analysis such as procedural analysis and concept analysis. Procedural analysis, as the name connotes, is a type of task analysis that focuses on procedures. It is "used to identify the sequential steps for completing a psychomotor or cognitive task (Luppicini, 78)." The nature of this method makes it appropriate in identifying the contents that causes problems, hence, the information necessary in solving them as well. For example, an analysis is broken down into several steps, the first being deconstructing a task being examined into several units. Structures are then determined using tools such as those performance-related matrices. Based on these structures, an evaluation can finally be performed. This demonstrates that, as with the traditional task analysis, procedural analysis is focused on the sequential approach in completing its analytical objectives. On the other hand, concept analysis is a type of cognitive task analysis that is used to represent the structure of an experts thinking (Jonassen, Tessmer and Hannum, 201). It sequences concept characteristics that relate to the concept or concept hierarchy (Olrich et al., p.143). These mean that this particular tool is particularly appropriate in analyzing tasks that are knowledge-based. This characteristic should differentiate it from the manner by which procedural analysis works. It operates through several approaches such as conceptual graphs or concept maps. By articulating knowledge through a systematic visual structure, relationships, issues, questions, problems, and new information, among others are revealed. For instance, a conceptual graph depicts these through nodes that include actions, events, and goals, wherein a specific set of relations exists for a specific type of node (Jonassen, Tessmer and Hannum, 201). Concept analysis can also